“At Key Stages 1 and 2, Citizenship is part of the non-statutory framework for PSHE and Citizenship. At Key Stages 3 and 4, Citizenship is a new foundation subject in the National Curriculum.”
Source: DfES Citizenship website:

“During Key Stage 3 pupils study, reflect upon and discuss topical political, spiritual, moral, social and cultural issues, problems and events. They learn to identify the role of the legal, political, religious, social and economic institutions and systems that influence their lives and communities. They continue to be actively involved in the life of their school, neighbourhood and wider communities and learn to become more effective in public life. They learn about fairness, social justice, respect for democracy and diversity at school, local, national and global level, and through taking part responsibly in community activities.”
Source: The National Curriculum Online:

Personal, Social and Health Education

PSHE complements citizenship in the curriculum by enabling pupils to:
• understand and manage responsibly a wider range of relationships as they mature, and to show respect for the diversity of, and differences between, people;
• develop the personal and social knowledge, skills and understanding that underpin learning in citizenship;
• develop their well-being, self-esteem and belief in their ability to succeed, and to take responsibility for their learning;
• develop practical knowledge and skills to help them live healthily and deal with the spiritual, moral, social and cultural issues they face as they approach adulthood; and
• reflect on their experiences and on how they are developing.
Source: DfES Standards Website:

Religious Education

“Religious education makes a distinctive contribution to the school curriculum by developing pupils’ knowledge and understanding of religion, religious beliefs, practices, language and traditions and their influence on individuals, communities, societies and cultures. It enables pupils to consider and respond to a range of important questions related to their own spiritual development, the development of values and attitudes and fundamental questions concerning the meaning and purpose of life.”
Source: The National Curriculum Online: